The type of motor is not critical to a servomotor and different types may be used. At the simplest, brushed permanent magnet DC servo motors are used, owing to their simplicity and low cost. Small industrial servomotors are typically electronically commutated brushless motors. For large industrial servomotors, AC induction motors are typically used, often with variable frequency drives to allow control of their speed called servo motor controller. For ultimate performance in a compact package, brushless AC motors with permanent magnet fields are used, effectively large versions of Brushless DC electric motors.
Drive modules for servomotors are a standard industrial component. Their design is a branch of power electronics, usually based on a three-phase MOSFET or IGBT H bridge. These standard modules accept a single direction and pulse count (rotation distance) as input. They may also include over-temperature monitoring, over-torque and stall detection features. As the encoder type, gearhead ratio and overall system dynamics are application specific, it is more difficult to produce the overall controller as an off-the-shelf module and so these are often implemented as part of the main controller.
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